GENERAL STUDIES – 4

Ethics and Integrity is a new section and this paper has been added since 2013. It is general in nature the answers can be formed on spot just the aspirant should have the understanding of basic concept. It includes the questions to test the attitude and approach related to the issues by the candidate. To approach the answers smartly the aspirants should never have short of ideas. It is tendency to fill the answer booklet during college days but UPSC is not expecting only that but a step ahead. The way to tackle this paper is to act smartly, efficiently, effectively keeping in mind the syllabus and time constraint.

Consistently thinking is important in this paper and mainly the ingredients are very important. In this no one can fake the ethical behavior. We all are good at everything but what matters here is the presentation.

This paper checks our personality and character. How we think. Case studies form important section of this paper which check how we will behave in different situations. Thus the aspirant should hunt and learn from various sources and this can be seen examination hall.

At home and in school we were been taught good manners and bad manners and also we were been punished. Today we assess our doings by judging others action. We try to justify our character on the frothy ground and it is very difficult to hide our character and personality. It is just to defend the thoughts and receptive to criticism as well.

It is not to mug the things but to sharpen the mind by consistent thinking and writing makes man perfect.

Syllabus

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions;
  • Dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and
  • Educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and
  • Political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship,
  • Objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns
  • and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as
  • sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral
  • values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity;
  • Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of
  • Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds,
  • challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

 

Section 1: Basic, thinkers, EQ

  • Basic theory
  • Emotional intelligence and Allied Topics
  • Thinkers and Reformers

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

 Dimensions of ethics

  • Media: Freedom of speech, right to privacy, plurality of views, issues in journalism and print media etc
  • Environmental: Right to private Property Vs Sustainable development, need og bio regionalism, Human greed Vs greed, International dimensions.
  • In Personal life
  • Public Sphere Ethics: Law and order
  • International ethics: organ donation, Abortion, Surrogacy etc
  • Bio ethics: Human genetic engineering, gene therapy, mutation etc
  • Cyber Ethics: principle of Net Neutrality, cyber security etc

Ethics Essence

  • Darwin’s theory
  • Goal of human life
  • Cardinal human virtues
  • Utilitarianism
  • Rationalism
  • Universalism
  • Ethics, morality and values (differences)

 Resource/ Reference:

Chronicle (Lexicon)

IGNOU Ethics material.

 

Section 2: Surroundings

  • Attitude
  • Family, society
  • Social Influence

Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

Factors influencing attitude change

  • Rational or emotional apparel
  • Credibility, Attractiveness, Motive etc.
  • Implications of individual attitude on organization, society, nation factors, morality etc.

Attitude Shaping Factors

  • Family
  • Friends
  • School
  • College
  • Religious institutions
  • Observing others etc.

 Negative social attitudes

  • Stereotype
  • Prejudice
  • Extremism
  • Communalism
  • Cultural assimilation
  • Information Dissemination, etc.

Functions

  • Shaping beliefs, values
  • Social identity
  • Consistency in behavior
  • Prompting actions, etc.

  Consequences of Ethics in Human Actions

  • Self Defense
  • Happiness of mankind
  • Societal interest
  • Mental act Vs Physical act
  • Criteria for evaluation, etc.

Resource/reference:

12th NCERT Psychology – Chapter 6 on Attitude and Social cognition

Chapter 7 – Social Influence and Group processes

Illustrations- Subba Rao Book

 

 Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections

Aptitude and values for civil service

  • Perseverance
  • Diligence
  • Prudence
  • Rectitude
  • Intergrity
  • Objectivity
  • Empathy
  • Tolerance
  • Ethics
  • Equity
  • Efficiency, etc

Resource/reference:

Book- Subba Rao

 

Section 3: Job

  • Government Job Values
  • Work culture at office
  • Compassion for others while on job

 Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in  administration and governance

 Emotional Intelligence

  • Importance in bureaucracy
  • Trust with Public
  • Better conflict resolution
  • Greater empathy
  • Self-management, social skills, Emotional self-awareness
  • Leadership, etc.

 Resource/Reference:

IGNOU- Chapter 3 and 4

 

Section 4: Public organizations

  • Theory
  • Dilemma
  • Code of Conduct
  • Charter
  • Corruption
  • RTI

Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance.

Accountability and Ethical Governance

  • Right Training
  • Right Recruitment
  • Media Accountability
  • Code of conduct
  • RTI
  • Lack of time
  • Huge size of bureaucracy
  • Lack of Co-ordination
  • Superiors
  • Political masters
  • Laws, Rules and regulations
  • Financial Audit
  • Citizens
  • Elections
  • Civil society, etc.
  • All India Service Rules

Resource/Reference:

Subba Rao

IGNOU- Ethical concerns in public administration

 

 Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: ethical issues in international relations and funding ; corporate governance

Corporate Governance and Issues

  • Scams: Sharada, satyam, sahara etc
  • Ponzi schemes
  • CSR
  • Charitable contributions
  • Funding
  • Organization and co ordination with local governance
  • Inadequately trained personnel
  • Lack of clarity in policy and guideline
  • Narrow sect oral coverage
  • Lack of community participation
  • Trusteeship
  • Transparency
  • Accountability
  • Financial disclosure
  • BOD
  • SEBI
  • RBI
  • CBI
  • Labor issues
  • Red tapism, etc

Resource/Reference:

IGNOU- Chapter 1

Magazines- Chronicle, Yojana

 

Current affairs news

Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption

Probity in Governance I

  • Code of Ethics: Need, Content, enforcement issues, Internalization in civil Services
  • Information sharing and transparency in Government
  • Philosophical basis of governance and probity
  • Concept of public service

Probity in Governance II

  • Utilization of public funds: Efficiency, economy, transparency, proprietary etc.
  • Funds transfer from center to state: Issues, local government, panchayats etc.
  • Role of CAG

Corruption

  • Whistleblowers act
  • Political reforms
  • Social audit
  • Participatory governance
  • E- Governance
  • Adopting new philosophy and public management
  • Roots and causes of corruption
  • Institutions to fight corruption, etc

Resource/ Reference:

2nd ARC report- Ethics in governance, Code of Conduct

Current Affairs

 

Case Studies

What are they and how to tackle them?

A case study is a description of an actual situation involving a decision to be made or a problem to be solved. Mostly an administrative nature of situation is given with some conditions and resources. You are asked to frame a possible solution for that condition using given resources, within the provided conditions.

No one provide definitive approach to tackle a case. Different kind of cases require different approach, but there are common steps that most approaches recommend to be followed in tackling a case study.

Also, as the cliché goes, there is no single solution to a case; there can be many interpretations of a case and varied solutions. So one must not worry that I might have written wrong answer or I have interpreted the case wrongly.

While solving a case study, one should imagine a real life scenario. He should also try to use his or some other’s known prior experiences from real life.

Some common mistakes made by aspirants:

  1. Judging the case from common perception: A civil service must look into the case by its merit and not from the eye of the masses.
  2. Beating around the bush: This happens when one doesn’t pay much attention the problem. One must not begin writing without reading twice the case and getting/understanding the exact case or problem.
  3. Biased opinion: Solution must be not favor someone at other’s cost.
  4. Aspirants sometimes forget the core of problem while trying to embed some thinker’s opinion/quotes in their answers. Though, embedding quotes into answer makes our answer more effective but one must not sway by this. As sometimes it makes us drift away from originality. One must adhere to his/her originality.

Aspirants must stay with their strengths. Read the case properly. Don’t start writing until you don’t get the problem exactly. One should try to support his arguments with constitutional articles, moral thinkers and some past famous case studies but it must not come at the cost of originality.

 

 

 

 

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